3. Ethiopia: The Horn of Africa, including Ethiopia in particular, are of strategic importance to Israel. Israel befriended Ethiopia's Mengistu and helped Ethiopia against the Somalis.
4. ZIMBABWE: Israel helped finance the Accra office of Robert Mugabe's National Front group.
Israel had links to Sally, the Ghanaian who became President Mugabe's wife.
5. TANZANIA: Israel's Mossad set up a spy school in Dar es Salaam.
6. GHANA: Around 1959, Israel enjoyed close relations with some of Ghana's leaders.
Israel’s Ambassador to Ghana, Ehud Avriel, became a close confidant of President Kwame Nkrumah.
7. GUINEA: Shiomo Hillel, Israel’s first Ambassador to Guinea, became a firm friend of President Sekou Touré
8. MALI: Rafi Ben Shalom advised President Modeiba Keita
9. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Ephraim Ben Haim forged close ties with the President.
2. Organizing courses and training schools for Africans. Setting up the Afro-Asian Institute in Israel.
3. Getting Mossad to help African countries to organise their security and intelligence services.
Running courses for African spies.
4. Keeping in close personal contact with African leaders.
5. Arming Africa.